Things go wrong. This is something that we can try to control, anticipate an plan for. But ultimately we will fail and we won’t be prepared for it. If we consider the amount of interactions we have, the amount of changes by so many people, and the limited amount of resources we have, it should be clear that if we don’t hit some bumps, we’re just going too slow.

One thing that we can do though, is to better handle problems after they happen with a good postmortem culture.

What’s a postmortem?

A postmortem is a written review of a problem that happened. We gather around considering the root causes and what led to the problem, and we figure out a course of actions that will prevent us from having that problem again. This is the most important part of it: we don’t want to experience that problem again.

Typically we have postmortems when we have a production incident (see production incident training program). For example, the application was down because of some reason and the customers were not able to use it. Companies and teams may have a process for when failure happens to create a postmortem document. There are many postmortem templates that we can adapt to our reality.

But for me postmortems are a tool that can be used for more things that outages. Some other examples might include:

  • The application is okay, but a specific feature is down
  • We missed an important deadline
  • We tried some new process that didn’t work out
  • Bet on some library or provider and it didn’t work out for us
  • We failed to met some KPI on the quarter

So, whenever we fail, we should register it. And this should start from the leadership giving the example. I believe that postmortems are a great tool to handle failure and that they shouldn’t be restricted to developers and production incidents.

Typical postmortem information

Here are some suggestions for typical postmortem information to gather:

  • Incident or background of the problem overview
  • Timeline
  • Contributing factors
  • Impact
  • Corrective actions
  • How are we going to make sure this doesn’t happen again?

Postmortems should be easy to understand and discuss. They should not be pointing fingers. The postmortem process should be something that is desirable and seen in a positive way. Okay, we failed, we learned from it and we’ll have a goal to prevent this problem to happen again. If we focus on blaming people and processes we may end up having some resistance to postmortems. And this will impact our path to be better.

Consider who’s the audience

Sometimes the audience is just our teammates and peers. We create a postmortem to address a problem and we share with the team. But I believe that this kind of information should be highly shareable.

We should share our postmortems with other teams that interact with us, and even with clients. This means that we may need to be careful with our language and the information we register. If we need to share the postmortem with clients we may consider having a second version of it that was edited for simplicity and maybe less detailed.

From my experience clients welcome postmortems. They are very sympathetic when companies admit they failed and have a plan to prevent it.

Review postmortems

A good exercise, specially when onboarding new teammates, is to review old postmortems and debate on the root causes and the proposed solutions.

There are companies that have a postmortem club, just like regular book reading clubs. This will foster knowledge and will people will have more context to deal with future incidents.

Being on call and having production down can be daunting and force us to leave our comfort zone. Because we may not know what’s happening and need to discover the solution right there. So a good training approach is to review past incidents. Even if we don’t know how to handle a specific issue, we gain from knowing the tooling and processes used on previous incidents.


Problems happen and they way we deal with them makes all the difference. Postmortems are a tool that can help us to address and solve problems. Making it part of our culture means that it should be a natural process when something happens and that should start from the top.